It’s not what you want to hear, but it is something you need to hear nonetheless. If you’re about to send your partner into a treatment program for his pain killer addiction, for example, this probably won’t be the last time you'll have this experience—not if the two of you remain together, that is. As sad as it is, only about twenty percent of the people who go through an alcohol or drug addiction treatment program will still be off the chemical substance a year later.
Why is relapse such a problem for those suffering from alcoholism and drug addiction? This is something we’re still struggling to understand.
Sometimes the Cravings Never Die
We know that addicts often suffer cravings for their drug of choice long after abstinence is gained. Some people hunger for the substance even years later. Scientists suspect this might be due to changes that occur in the brain as a result of the use of the chemical substance. The brain gets used to functioning with the drug, and it seems to lose its ability to do so without that chemical substance.
We also suspect that cravings are aroused by cues that the addict will encounter despite a drug-free life. These could be people, places, and things that are all associated with the former lifestyle. In fact, we now know from brain scans that, even if the brain is exposed to an image for such a short time that a normal brain would typically not react to the image, the brain of the recovering addict is activated. In other words, the addict’s brain lights up in places and ways the brain of someone without an addiction history simply will not. As a result, we can assume the addict’s brain is remembering those highs and hence, the person feels the urge to use once again.
Conversations with recovering addicts basically confirm this. Some will tell you that when they see images of themselves using drugs during their times of heavy usage, for instance, they can not see these images without remembering how great the high or the rush was. So, while those of us who do not have addiction histories might be disgusted by images such as these, their brains respond to the memories of the pleasure, not all of the pain, that addiction brought.
Recovering Addicts Must Change
Playpens and Playmates
There's a reason why programs such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) tell people that they must change their playpens and their play mates. To do otherwise, the alcoholic or drug addict is told, is to ask for immediate relapse.
It can help the recovering alcoholic or drug addict to be with others in support groups such as AA. Of course, it’s important that attendees don’t talk about the glory days of drug use but instead, remind themselves of all the pain or the hell they ultimately went through because of the alcoholism or addiction. And invariably, they'll have such storied to tell. Most addicts who seek out help via AA or treatment programs have “hit bottom”—or, at least, come close enough to doing so that they realize the alcohol or drugs turned on them. Yes, initially the substance may have provided a great high, but then over time, the substance ceased to provide the high it once did. At this point, the emotional pain of the lifestyle is often more extreme than the pain the addict experienced initially—that emotional pain that caused him to turn to drugs in the first place.
Physiologic Response Associated with Drug of Choice
By the way, the addict doesn’t appear to respond to all cues related to drugs or alcohol. Instead, he responds to those associated with his drug of choice. For example, when a cocaine addict observes environmental cues related to cocaine use, anticipatory reactions are triggered in the individual. What are these? Well, there will be an increase in heart rate, in blood pressure, and pupil size. That said, the cocaine addict will not respond in these same ways to cues applicable to heroin use.
It's important to realize that most addicts don’t relapse merely because they’ve been exposed to such images. Rather, they're inclined to begin using their drug of choice again when faced with a negative mood state. Still,
it’s not like the addict just feels down one afternoon and takes up using again. Normally, something has happened that the person finds difficult to cope with—such as the death of a loved one, the loss of a job, or there may be sudden economic problems. Also, it takes more than seeing someone else get high, or connecting with a former buddy from the using days, for the sober addict to relapse.
The problem with a relapse, however, is that it's usually a quick downhill slide. It's almost as if the person is bound and determined to make up for lost time. So, while it might have taken the person years to get to a certain level of misuse of the substance, very soon the relapsed alcoholic or drug addict is back using at that same level as when he entered treatment. And indeed, sometimes it can seem that this level is reached almost immediately.
Addict Must Take Immediate Responsibility for Relapse
It’s important for the relapsed addict to do something about the relapse immediately in order to try and avoid the above-mentioned scenario. If such quick action is taken, the addict will experience what might seem more like a stumble versus being sucked into a black hole—out of which he may sense he’ll never return. Of course, it's important for the addict to try and understand why the relapse likely occurred. This can help him come up with an action plan to try and keep out of trouble. For example, he could develop a plan for staying out of high risk situations; a plan or techniques for dealing better with stressful situations that are likely to arise; and self-talk that he can use to fight urges he may feel—those urges that threaten to get the best of him.
Of course, it would be great if you could help your partner to develop such strategies. But if your partner is a narcissist, this may not work as well as you would hope. You may find yourself being blamed for the stress that threw him back into the addiction, for instance. So, be certain that you don’t accept any blame or the shame he tries to place on you. Furthermore, be prepared for the fact that he might make it impossible for you to be a supportive and helpful partner—so that he can continue to play the blame game and thereby shirk responsibility for his own actions.
If you find yourself in this latter situation, ask yourself: Do I want to be around for the relapses that will inevitably follow?
In my case, I decided that I did not. However, you’ll have to make your own decision.